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Biology 4th Quarter

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Biology Standards

Standards Addressed
  DODEA Science Standards
 

S1 Standard:

 

S1 Scientific Inquiry: The student extends their understanding of scientific inquiry and their ability to conduct scientific investigations; that is, the student:

 

S1a: Constructs questions that initiate and guide scientific investigations.
  S1b: Designs and conducts scientific investigations using established procedures that are safe, humane, and ethical.
  S1c: Uses technology and mathematics to systematically gather, record, analyze, explain, and interpret data.
  S1d: Formulates and revises scientific conclusions, explanations and models (physical, conceptual, mathematical) based on scientific knowledge, logic, and evidence.
  S1e:Recognizes, analyzes and evaluates alternative explanations and models.
  S1f: Evaluates and defends scientific arguments, acknowledging references and contributions of others.
  S1g: Communicates the scientific inquiry process using appropriate scientific language and mathematics.
 

S2 Standard:

 

S2 History and Nature of Science : The student demonstrates understanding of science as a human endeavor, examining the nature of scientific knowledge and historical perspectives; that is, the student:

  S2a:  Describes how the work of scientists is influenced by their ethical standards and by societal, cultural, and personal beliefs, and how scientists use the habits of mind (such as: reasoning, insight, creativity, intellectual honesty, tolerance for ambiguity and openness to new ideas) in their work.
  S2b: Compares and contrasts the difference between science and other ways of knowing through use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism.
  S2c: Assesses the work of scientists showing that all scientific ideas depend on experimental and observational confirmation and are subject to change as new evidence becomes available.
  S2d: Describes the contributions of diverse cultures to scientific knowledge and the changes to scientific thinking that evolve over time, building upon earlier knowledge.
 

S3 Standard:

 

S3 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives The student demonstrates an understanding of the impact each individual, community, and human enterprise has on natural conditions and resources from local, national, and global perspectives; that is, the student:

  S3a: Employs the tenets of personal and community health, safety and resource conservation.
  S3b: Identifies, accesses and uses data to construct explanations about the characteristics, rates, and sources of changes in populations, natural resources, and environmental quality.
  S3c: Assesses potential danger and risk of natural and human-induced hazards.
  S3d: Analyzes the relationships among technological, social, political, and economic changes and the impact on humans and the environment.
 

S4 Standard:

 

S4 Science and Technology: The student demonstrates abilities of technological design and understandings about science, engineering and technology; that is, the student:
  S4a: Uses technology to perform scientific investigations to secure valid and reliable results.
  S4b: Identifies and/or constructs a problem or need in relation to technological designs; proposes new designs and chooses between alternative solutions.
  S4c: Constructs understandings about the fields of science and engineering, the interrelationships between science and technology, and explains their contribution to society.
 

S4d: Analyzes innovations in science and technology with respect to alternatives, risks, costs and benefits to society and the environment.

  DODEA Biology Standards
 

S5 Biology Standard:

 

S5 Biology: The student demonstrates a conceptual understanding of the organization of life on Earth; that is, the student:

 

S5a

 

S5a: Describes, analyzes and compares structure, function, and organization of various cells. Components:

  S5a.1: All living organisms are made of cells. Cells are composed of a small number of chemical elements mainly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Carbon atoms can easily bond to several other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form the large complex molecules of life.
  S5a.2: Every cell is covered by a selectively permeable membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell. In all but quite primitive cells, a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape and, for animal cells, movement.
  S5a.3: Within every cell are specialized parts for the containment of hereditary material, energy transfer, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and even movement. In addition, most cells both individually and in groups in multicellular organisms perform some specialized function that others do not.
  S5a.4: Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Some cells secrete substances that spread only to nearby cells. Others secrete hormones, special molecules that are carried in the bloodstream to widely distributed cells that have specific receptor sites to which they attach. Along nerve cells, electrical impulses carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow.
 

S5b

 

S5b: Communicates an understanding of the biochemistry of life including organic compounds, enzymes, cellular respiration and photosynthesis.  Components:

  S5b.1: Chemical bonds between atoms of carbon-containing (organic) molecules can be used to assemble larger macromolecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and lipids).
  S5b.2: The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino-acid molecules. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and the shape the chain takes is a consequence of attractions between the chain ís parts.
  S5b.3: Complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism or even other organisms.
  S5b.4: Cell functions are regulated. Regulation occurs both through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins and through the selective expression of individual genes. This regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell products, growth and division.
  S5b.5: For the body to use food for energy and building materials, the food must be broken down through a series of biochemical processes into molecules that are absorbed and transported to cells.
  S5b.6: In some animals and humans to release energy from food, oxygen must be supplied to cells, and carbon dioxide removed. Lungs take in oxygen for the combustion of food and eliminate the carbon dioxide produced. The exchange of the two gases takes place in the alveoli of the lungs. However, metabolic processes can change when there is limited oxygen or hostile environments.
  S5b.7: The processes of photosynthesis and respiration in plants transfer energy from the Sun to living systems (e.g. chloroplasts in plant cells use energy from sunlight to combine molecules of carbon dioxide and water into complex, energy rich organic compounds, and release oxygen into the environment).
 

S5c

 

S5c: Describes the behavior of organisms and hypothesizes the relationship to nervous and endocrine systems and various external stimuli. Components:

  S5c.1: Characteristics can be observed at molecular, cellular, and wholeorganism levels óin structure, chemistry, or behavior. These characteristics strongly influence what capabilities an organism will have and how it will react.
  S5c.2: Multicellular organisms have nervous systems that help an organism adjust to changes in both its internal and external environments.  Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that carry impulses rapidly through their long cell extensions called axons. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals that enable organisms to monitor what is going on in their environment.
  S5c.3: The nervous system works by electrochemical signal transport from one nerve to the next. The hormonal system exerts its influences through chemicals that circulate in the blood. These two systems also affect each other by coordinating body functions.
  S5c.4: Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organismís own species and others, as well as environmental changes. These responses either can be innate or learned.
  S5c.5: Drugs, structural injuries, and chemical imbalances may mimic and/or block the molecules involved in transmitting nerve or hormone signals and therefore disturb normal operations of the brain and body.
 

S5d

 

S5d: Elaborates on the principles of genetics and explains the role of DNA, genes, chromosomes, and mutation in reproduction and heredity.  Components:

 

S5d.1: The many body cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single stem cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. Different genetic instructions are used in different types of cells, influenced by the cell ís environment and past history.

 

S5d.2: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. The individual units that make upthe genetic code are virtually the same for all life forms. Before a cell divides, the instructions are duplicated so that each of the two new cells gets all the necessary information to perform life processes.

 

S5d.3: The information passed from parents to offspring is coded in DNA molecules through a series of units called genes.

 

S5d.4: Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be

passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring ís success in its environment.

 

S5d.5: The sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents.

 

S5d.6: Changes in DNA (mutations) occur spontaneously at low rates. Some of these changes make no difference to the organism, whereas

others can change cells and organisms. Only mutations in germ cells can create the variation that changes an organism ís offspring.

 

S5e

 

S5e: Relates theories of biological evolution to geologic time and addresses speciation, biodiversity, natural selection, and biological classification.  Components:

 

S5e.1: Heritable characteristics influence what capabilities an organism will have and how it will react, and therefore influence how likely it is to survive and reproduce.

 

S5e.2: Offspring of advantaged individuals, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce in that environment. The proportion of individuals that have advantageous characteristics will increase.

 

S5e.3: New heritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells.

 

S5e.4: Natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments. When an environment changes, the

survival value of some inherited characteristics may change.

 

S5e.5: Natural selection and its long-term consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient life forms, as well as for the molecular similarities observed among the diverse species of living organisms.

 

S5e.6: Biological changes over time appear to be like the growth of a bush: Some branches survive from the beginning with little or no change, many die out altogether, and others branch repeatedly, sometimes giving rise to more complex organisms. Thus, the theory of evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future. However, long-term progress is not necessarily in some set direction.

 

S5e.7: The basic idea of biological evolution is that the Earth ís presentday species developed from earlier, distinctly different species.

 

S5f

 

S5f: Examines ecology as interrelationships of biotic and abiotic factors and explains the transfer of matter and energy within ecosystems. Components:

 

S5f.1: The interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms and environments establish a variety of ecosystems.

 

S5f.2: Understanding any one part of an ecosystem requires knowledge of how the parts interact with each other.

 

S5f.3: The amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials.

 

S5f.4: Human activities can deliberately or inadvertently change the equilibrium in ecosystems. An ecosystem in equilibrium may return to the same state of equilibrium if the disturbances it experiences are small.  However, large disturbances may also cause a shift in the equilibrium so that ecosystems eventually settle into a different new state of equilibrium.

 

S5f.5: In the long run, however, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. Like many complex systems, ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium.

 

S5f.6: The complexity and organization of organisms accommodate the need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain the organism. Plants alter the Earth ís atmosphere by removing carbon dioxide from it, using the carbon to make sugars and releasing oxygen.

 

S5f.7: As matter and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems Ė cells,, tissues, organs, organisms, communities Ė and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways. Each recombination results in storage and dissipation of energy into the environment as heat. Matter and energy are conserved in each change.

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